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 BASIC ELECTRONICS!!!!

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PostSubject: BASIC ELECTRONICS!!!!   Thu Jan 03, 2008 4:34 pm

INDUCTOR

An inductor is a passive electrical device employed in electrical circuits for its property of inductance. An inductor can take many forms.


Inductance (measured in henries) is an effect which results from the magnetic field that forms around a current carrying conductor. Electrical current through the conductor creates a magnetic flux proportional to the current. A change in this current creates a change in magnetic flux that, in turn, generates an electromotive force (emf) that acts to oppose this change in current. Inductance is a measure of the generated emf for a unit change in current. For example, an inductor with an inductance of 1 henry produces an emf of 1 V when the current through the inductor changes at the rate of 1 ampere per second. The inductance of a conductor is increased by coiling the conductor such that the magnetic flux encloses (links) all of the coils (turns). The number of turns, the area of each loop/turn, and even what it is wrapped around affect the inductance. Additionally, the magnetic flux linking these turns can be increased by coiling the conductor around a material with a high permeability
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PostSubject: Re: BASIC ELECTRONICS!!!!   Thu Jan 03, 2008 4:38 pm

TRANSISTORS

A transistor is a semiconductor device that uses a small amount of voltage or electrical current to control a larger change in voltage or current. The transistor is the fundamental building block of the circuitry that governs the operation of computers, cellular phones, and all other modern electronics. its is also use to amplify such current and also use in switching.

Types

Bipolar junction transistor

The bipolar junction transistor (BJT) was the first type of transistor to be mass-produced. Bipolar transistors are so named because they conduct by using both majority and minority carriers.

Field-effect transistor

The field-effect transistor (FET), sometimes called a unipolar transistor, uses either electrons (N-channel FET) or holes (P-channel FET) for conduction.
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PostSubject: Re: BASIC ELECTRONICS!!!!   Thu Jan 03, 2008 4:41 pm

OHMS LAW

Ohm's law states that, in an electrical circuit, the current passing through a conductor, from one terminal point on the conductor to another terminal point on the conductor, is directly proportional to the potential difference (i.e. voltage drop or voltage) across the two terminal points and inversely proportional to the resistance of the conductor between the two terminal points.

For real devices (resistors, in particular), this law is usually valid over a large range of values of current and voltage, but exceeding certain limitations may result in losing simple direct proportionality (e.g. temperature effects, see below).
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PostSubject: Re: BASIC ELECTRONICS!!!!   Thu Jan 03, 2008 4:44 pm

CAPACITOR

A capacitor is an electrical device that can store energy in the electric field between a pair of closely-spaced conductors (called 'plates'). When voltage is applied to the capacitor, electric charges of equal magnitude, but opposite polarity, build up on each plate.

Capacitors are used in electrical circuits as energy-storage devices. They can also be used to differentiate between high-frequency and low-frequency signals and this makes them useful in electronic filters.
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PostSubject: The capacitor's capacitance   Thu Jan 03, 2008 4:48 pm

The capacitor's capacitance (C) is a measure of the amount of charge (Q) stored on each plate for a given potential difference or voltage (V) which appears between the plates:

C = {Q \over V}

Stored energy

As opposite charges accumulate on the plates of a capacitor due to the separation of charge, a voltage develops across the capacitor owing to the electric field of these charges. Ever-increasing work must be done against this ever-increasing electric field as more charge is separated. The energy (measured in joules, in SI) stored in a capacitor is equal to the amount of work required to establish the voltage across the capacitor, and therefore the electric field.
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PostSubject: Re: BASIC ELECTRONICS!!!!   Thu Jan 03, 2008 4:51 pm


KINDS OF DIODE


Normal (p-n) diodes
which operate as described above. Usually made of doped silicon or, more rarely, germanium. Before the development of modern silicon power rectifier diodes, cuprous oxide and later selenium was used; its low efficiency gave it a much higher forward voltage drop (typically 1.4–1.7 V per "cell," with multiple cells stacked to increase the peak inverse voltage rating in high voltage rectifiers), and required a large heat sink (often an extension of the diode's metal substrate), much larger than a silicon diode of the same current ratings would require

PIN diodes
A PIN diode has a central un-doped, or intrinsic, layer, forming a p-type / intrinsic / n-type structure. They are used as radio frequency switches, similar to varactor diodes but with a more sudden change in capacitance. They are also used as large volume ionizing radiation detectors and as photodetectors. PIN diodes are also used in power electronics, as their central layer can withstand high voltages. Furthermore, the PIN structure can be found in many power semiconductor devices, such as IGBTs, power MOSFETs, and thyristors.

Varicap or varactor diodes
These are used as voltage-controlled capacitors. These are important in PLL (phase-locked loop) and FLL (frequency-locked loop) circuits, allowing tuning circuits, such as those in television receivers, to lock quickly, replacing older designs that took a long time to warm up and lock. A PLL is faster than a FLL, but ****e to integer harmonic locking (if one attempts to lock to a broadband signal). They also enabled tunable oscillators in early discrete tuning of radios, where a cheap and stable, but fixed-frequency, crystal oscillator provided the reference frequency for a voltage-controlled oscillator.

Zener diodes
(****ounced /ziːnər/) Diodes that can be made to conduct backwards. This effect, called Zener breakdown, occurs at a precisely defined voltage, allowing the diode to be used as a precision voltage reference. In practical voltage reference circuits Zener and switching diodes are connected in series and opposite directions to balance the temperature coefficient to near zero. Some devices labeled as high-voltage Zener diodes are actually avalanche diodes (see below). Two (equivalent) Zeners in series and in reverse order, in the same package, constitute a transient absorber (or Transorb, a registered trademark). They are named for Dr. Clarence Melvin Zener of Southern Illinois University, inventor of the device.

LIGHT EMITTING DIODE
LEDs)

In a diode formed from a direct band-gap semiconductor, such as gallium arsenide, carriers that cross the junction emit photons when they recombine with the majority carrier on the other side. Depending on the material, wavelengths (or colors) from the infrared to the near ultraviolet may be produced. The forward potential of these diodes depends on the wavelength of the emitted photons: 1.2 V corresponds to red, 2.4 to violet. The first LEDs were red and yellow, and higher-frequency diodes have been developed over time. All LEDs are monochromatic; 'white' LEDs are actually combinations of three LEDs of a different color, or a blue LED with a yellow scintillator coating. LEDs can also be used as low-efficiency photodiodes in signal applications. An LED may be paired with a photodiode or phototransistor in the same package, to form an opto-isolator.
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PostSubject: Re: BASIC ELECTRONICS!!!!   Thu Jan 03, 2008 4:57 pm

TRANSFORMERS

A transformer is an electrical device that transfers energy from one circuit to another by magnetic coupling, without requiring relative motion between its parts. A transformer comprises two or more coupled windings, and, in most cases, a magnetic core to concentrate magnetic flux. A changing voltage applied to one winding creates a time-varying magnetic flux in the core, which induces a voltage in the other windings.

TYPES OF TRANSFORMER

* Step-up

The secondary has more turns than the primary.

* Step-down

The secondary has fewer turns than the primary.

* Isolating

Intended to transform from one voltage to the same voltage. The two coils have approximately equal numbers of turns, although often there is a slight difference in the number of turns, in order to compensate for losses (otherwise the output voltage would be a little less than, rather than the same as, the input voltage).

* Variable

The primary and secondary have an adjustable number of turns which can be selected without reconnecting the transformer.
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PostSubject: Re: BASIC ELECTRONICS!!!!   Wed Dec 26, 2012 5:22 pm

This is very useful one.
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